Shoulder Dystocia










 

 

 


 


Bibliography

Abrams B, Selvin, S. Maternal weight gain pattern and birth weight. Obstet Gynecol 1995 (1);86;163-169.

Abrams B, Carmichael S, Selvin S. Factors associated with the pattern of maternal weight gain during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1995 (2);86:170-176.

Acker D., Sachs B., Friedman E. Risk factors for shoulder dystocia. Obstet Gynecol 1985;66:762-768.

Acker D., Sachs B, Friedman E. Risk factors for shoulder dystocia in the average weight infant. Obstet Gynecol 1986; 67:614-61.

Acker D., Gregory K, Sachs B, Friedman E. Risk factors for Erb-Duchenne Palsy. Obstet Gynecol 1988;71:389-392.

Acker D. A shoulder dystocia intervention form. Obstet Gynecol 1991; 78:150-151.

Ahern J., Goodlin R. Cesarean section in the massively obese. Obstet Gynecol, 1978; 51:509-510.

Al-Qattan MM, al-Kharfy TM. Obstetric brachial plexus injury in subsequent deliveries. Ann Plas Surg 1996;37:545-8.

Allen R, Sorab J, Gonik B. Risk factors for shoulder dystocia: An engineering study of clinician-applied forces. Obstet Gynecol. 1991;77:352-355.

Allen RH, Bankoski BR, Burtzin CA, et al. Comparing clinician-applied loads for routine , difficult, and shoulder dystocia deliveries. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994;171:1621-1627.

Al-Najashi S, Al-Suleiman S, El-Yahia A, Rahman M, Rahman, J. Shoulder dystocia--A clinical study of 56 cases. Aus NZ J Obstet Gynecol, 1989; 29:129-132.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Fetal Macrosomia. Washington DC: ACOG, 2000. Practice Bulletin No. 22.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Shoulder Dystocia. Washington, D.C.: ACOG, 1997.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice Bulletin Number 40: Shoulder Dystocia. Washington, D.C.: November 2002.

Bahar AM. Risk factors and fetal outcome in cases of shoulder dystocia compared with normal deliveries of a similar birthweight. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology: 1996; 103:868-872.

Barden TP, Knowles, HC Jr. Diagnosis of diabetes in pregnancy. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol 24, No 1, March 1981.

Baskett TF, Allen AC. Perinatal Implications of Shoulder Dystocia. Obstet Gynecol: 1995; 86:14-17.

Beall MH, Spong C, McKay J, Ross MG. Objective definition of shoulder dystocia: A prospective evaluation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;179:934-7.

Benedetti TJ, Gabbe SG. Shoulder dystocia: A complication of fetal macrosomia and prolonged second stage of labor with midpelvic delivery. Obstet Gynecol 1978:52:526-9.

Benson CB, Doubilet PM, Saltzman DH, Greene MF, Jones TB. Femur length/abdominal circumference ratio: Poor predictor of macrosomic fetuses in diabetic mothers. Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine 1986;5:141-4.

Benson CB, Doubilet PM, Saltzman DH. Sonographic determination of fetal weights in diabetic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1987;156:441-4.

Berard J, Dufour P, Vinatier D, et al. Fetal macrosomia: risk factors and outcome. A study of the outcome concerning 100 cases >4500 g. Eur J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;77:51-59.

Blickstein I, Ben-Arie A, Hagay ZJ. Antepartum risks of shoulder dystocia and brachial plexus injury for infants weighing 4,200 g or more. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1998;45:77-80.

Bofill JA, Rust OA, Devidas M, et al. Shoulder dystocia and operative vaginal delivery. J Maternal Fetal Med. 1997;6:220-224.

Boyd ME, Usher RH, McLean FH. Fetal macrosomia: Prediction, risks, proposed management. Obstet Gynecol. 1983;61:715-722.

Bradley RJ, Nicolaides KH, Brudenell JM. Are all infants of diabetic mothers "macrosomic"? BMJ 1988;297:1583-4.

Bruner JP, Drummond SB, Meenan AL, et al. All-fours maneuver for reducing shoulder dystocia during labor. J Reprod Med. 1998;43:439-443.

Bryant DR, Leonardi MR, Landwehr JB, Bottoms SF. Limited usefulness of fetal weight in predicting neonatal brachial plexus injury. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;179:686-9.

Buhimschi CS, Buhimschi IA, Malinow IA, et al. Use of McRoberts' position during delivery and increase in pushing efficiency. Lancet. 2001;358:470-471.

Casey, BM, Lucas, MJ, Mcintire, DD, Leveno, KJ. Pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes compared with the general obstetric population. Obstet Gynecol, 1997; 90:869-873.

Chambrelent. Deux cases des dystocie par volume exaggere des epaules. Rev Mens Gynec Obstet de Bordeaux. 1902;2:88.

Chauhan SP, Cowan BD, Magann EF, Bradford TH, Roberts WE, Morrison JC. Intrapartum detection of a macrosomic fetus: Clinical versus 8 sonographic models. Aust & NZ J Obstet & Gynecol, 1995; 35:266.

Chauhan SP, Lutton PM, Bailey KJ, Guerrieri JP, Morrison JC. Intrapartum clinical, sonographic, and parous patients' estimates of newborn birth weight. Obstet & Gynecol, 1992; 79:956-958.

Chervenak JL, Divon MY, Hirsch J, GirzBA, Langer O. Macrosomia in the postdate pregnancy: Is routine ultrasonographic screening indicated? Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989; 161:753-756.

Chez RA, Carlan S, Greenberg SL, Spellacy WN. Fractured clavicle is an unavoidable event. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994;171:797-8.

Coen RW, Porreco R, Cousins L, Sandler JA. Postpartum glycosylated hemoglobin levels in mothers of large-for-gestational age infants. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 1980; 136:380.

Cohen B, Penning S, Major C, et al. Sonographic prediction of shoulder dystocia in infants of diabetic mothers. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;88:10-13.

Cohen BF, Penning S, Ansley D, et al. The incidence and severity of shoulder dystocia correlates with a sonographic measurement of asymmetry in patients with diabetes. Am J Perinatol. 1999;16:197-201.

Cohen WR. Influence of the duration of second stage labor on perinatal outcome and puerperal morbidity. Obstet Gynecol 1977; 49:266-268.

Collins JH, Collins CL. What is shoulder dystocia? J Reprod Med. 2001;46:148-149.

Combs CA, Singh NB, Khoury JC. Elective induction versus spontaneous labor after sonographic diagnosis of fetal macrosomia. Obstet Gynecol. 1993;81:492-496.

Conway Dl, Langer O. Elective delivery of infants with macrosomia in diabetic women: Reduced shoulder dystocia versus increased cesarean deliveries. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;178:922-925.

Coustan DR, Imarah J. Prophylactic insulin treatment of gestation diabetes reduces the incidence of macrosomia, operative delivery, and birth trauma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984; 150:836-42.

Dawes MG, Grudzinskas JG. Patterns of maternal weight gain in pregnancy. British J Obstet Gynecol 1991;98:195-201.

de Chalain TMB, Clarke HM, Curtis CG. Case report: Unilateral combined facial nerve and brachial plexus palsies in a neonate following a midlevel forceps delivery. Annals of Plastic Surgery 1997;38:187-190.

Delpapa DH, Mueller-Heubach E. Pregnancy outcome following ultrasound diagnosis of macrosomia. Obstet Gynecol 1991;78:340-343.

Deter RL, Hadlock FP. Use of ultrasound in the detection of macrosomia: A review. J Clin Ultrasound 1985;13:519-524.

Dignam WJ. Difficulties in delivery, including shoulder dystocia and malpresentations of the fetus. Clinical Obstet Gynecol 1976;19:577-585.

Dornan KJ, Hansmann M, Redford DHA, Wittmann BK. Fetal weight estimation by real-time ultrasound measurement of biparietal and transverse trunk diameter. Am J Obstet. Gynecol 1982;142:652-657.

Dyachenko A, Ciampi A, Fahey J, Mighty H, Oppenheimer L, Hamilton EF. Prediction of risk for shoulder dystocia with neonatal injury. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jul 14; [Epub ahead of print]

Ecker JL, Greenberg JA, Norwitz ER, Nadel AS, Repke JT. Birth weight as a predictor of brachial plexus injury. Obstet Gynecol 1997;89:643-647.

Elliott, Lt Col JP, Garite TJ, Freeman RK, McQuown DS, Patel JM. Ultrasonic prediction of fetal macrosomia in diabetic patients. Obstet Gynecol 1982;60:159-162.

El Madany AA, Jallad KB, Radi FA, El Hamdan H, O'Deh HM. Shoulder dystocia: anticipation and outcome. Int J Gynecol Obstet, 1990;34:7-12.

Emerson, R. Obesity and its association with the complications of pregnancy. Br Med J. 1962; 2:516-519.

Flamm BL. Tight nuchal cord and shoulder dystocia: A potentially catastrophic combination. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;94:853.

Friesen CD, Miller AM, Rayburn WF. Influence of spontaneous or induced labor on delivering the macrosomic fetus. Am J Perinatol. 1995;12:63-66.

Geary M, McParland P, Johnson H, et al. Shoulder dystocia: Is it predictable? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1995;62:15-18.

Gemer O, Bergman M, Segal S. Labor abnormalities as a risk factor for shoulder dystocia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1999;78:735-736.

Gherman RB, Goodwin TM, Souter I, Neumann K, Ouzounian JG, Paul Richard. The McRoberts' maneuver for the alleviation of shoulder dystocia: How successful is it?. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;176:656-61.

Gherman RB, Ouzounian JG, Incerpi MH, Goodwin TM. Symphyseal separation and transient femoral neuropathy associated with the McRoberts' maneuver. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;178:609-610.

Gherman RB, Ouzounian JG, Goodwin, TM. Obstetric maneuvers for shoulder dystocia and associated fetal morbidity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;178:1126-30.

Gherman R. Reply to William Spellacy's letter to the editor, "Erb palsy without shoulder dystocia," 1998;179:561-2.

Gherman RB, Ouzounian JG, Miller DA, et al. Spontaneous vaginal delivery: a risk factor for Erb palsy? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;178:423-427.

Gherman RB. Persistent brachial plexus injury: The outcome of concern among patients with suspected fetal macrosomia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;178:195.

Gherman RB. Increased cesarean delivery: No effect on brachial plexus palsy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;179:1378-1379.

Gherman RB, Ouzounia JG, Goodwin TM. Brachial plexus palsy: An in utero injury? AM J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;180:1303-1307.

Gherman RB, Tramont J, Muffley P, Goodwin TM. Analysis of McRoberts' Maneuver by X-ray pelvimetry. Obstet Gynecol 2000;95:43-7.

Gherman RB. Fetal abdominal circumference and macrosomia. J Reprod Med. 2001;46:699-700.

Gherman RB. Shoulder dystocia: An evidence-based evaluation of the obstetrical nightmare. Clinical Obstet and Gynecol 2002;45:345-361.

Gilbert A, Brockman R, Carlioz H. Surgical treatment of brachial plexus birth palsy. Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research, 1991;264:39-47.

Gilbert WM, Newbitt TS, Danielsen B. Associated factors in 1611 cases of brachial plexus injury. Obstet Gynecol 1999;93:536-540.

Gilby JR, Williams MC, Spellacy WN. Fetal abdominal circumference measurements of 35 and 38 cms as predictors of macrosomia: A risk factor for shoulder dystocia. J Reprod Med. 2000;45:936-938.

Ginsberg NA, Moisidis C. How to predict recurrent shoulder dystocia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;184:1427- 1430.

Golditch IM, Kirkman K. The large fetus: management and outcome. Obstet Gynecol. 1978;52: 26-31.

Gonen R, Spiegel D, Abend M. Is macrosomia predictable, and are shoulder dystocia and birth trauma preventable? Obstet Gynecol. 1996;88:526-529.

Gonen O, Rosen DJ, Dolfin Z, et al. Induction of labor versus expectant management in macrosomia: A randomized study. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;89:913-917.

Gonen R, Bader D, Ajami M. Effects of a policy of elective cesarean delivery in cases of suspected fetal macrosomia on the incidence of brachial plexus injury and the rate of cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183:1296-1300.

Gonik B, Stringer CA, Held B. An alternate mechanism for management of shoulder dystocia. AM J Obstet Gynecol. 1983;145:882-884.

Gonik B, Allen R, Sorab J. Objective evaluation of the shoulder dystocia phenomenon: Effect of maternal pelvic orientation on force reduction. Obstet Gynecol. 1989;74:44-47.

Gonik B, Hollyer VL, Allen R. Shoulder dystocia recognition: Differences in neonatal risks for injury. Am J Perinatol 1991;8:31-34.

Gonik B, Walker A, Grimm M. Mathematic modeling of forces associated with shoulder dystocia: A comparison of endogenous and exogenous sources. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;182;689-691.

Goodwin TM, Banks E, Millar LK, Phelan JP. Catastrophic shoulder dystocia and emergency symphysiotomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;177:463-4.

Gordon M, Rich H, Deutschberger J, et al. The immediate and long-term outcome of obstetric birth trauma: I. Brachial plexus paralysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1973;117:51-56.

Graham EM, Forouzan I, Morgan MA. A retrospective analysis of Erb palsy cases and their relation to birth weight and trauma at delivery. J Maternal-Fetal Medicine 1997;6:1-5.

Gregory KD, Henry OA, Ramicone E, Chan LS, Platt LD. Maternal and infant complications in high and normal weight infants by method of delivery. Obstet Gynecol 1998;92:507-13.

Gross SJ, Shime J, Farine D. Shoulder dystocia: Predictors and outcome--a five year review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1987;156:334-336.

Gross TL, Sokol RJ, WIlliams T, et al. Shoulder dystocia: a fetal-physician risk. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1987;156:1408-1418.

Gudmundsson S, Henningsson AC, Lindqvist P. Correlation of birth injury with maternal height and birthweight. BJOG. 2005 Jun;112(6):764-7

Hadlock, FP, Harrist, RB, Sharman RS, Deter RL, Park SK. Estimation of fetal weight with the use of head, body, and femur measurements--A prospective study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985;151:333-7.

Hankins GDV, Clark SL. Brachial plexus palsy involving the posterior shoulder at spontaneous vaginal delivery. Am J Perinatology 1995;12:44-45.

Hankins GDV. Lower thoracic spinal cord injury: A severe complication of shoulder dystocia. Am J Perinatol. 1998;15:443-444.

Harris BA. Shoulder dystocia. Clinical Ob Gyn 1984;27:106-111.

Hartfield VJ. Subcutaneous symphysiotomy -- time for a reappraisal? Aust. N.Z.J. Obstet. Gynaec. 1973;13:147-152.

Hartfield VJ. Letter to editors: Symphysiotomy for shoulder dystocia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986;228.

Hassan AA. Shoulder dystocia: risk factors and prevention. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 1988;28:107-109.

Heath T, Gherman RB. Symphyseal separation, sacro-iliac joint dislocation, and transient lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy associated with McRoberts' maneuver. J Reprod Med. 1999;44:902-904.

Hernandez C, Wendel GD. Shoulder dystocia. Clinical Obstet and Gynecol 1990;33:526-534.

Hope P, Breslin S, Lamont L, et al. Fatal shoulder dystocia: A review of 56 cases reported to the Confidential Enquiry into Stillbirths and Deaths in Infancy. Br J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;105:1256-1261.

Hopewood HG. Shoulder dystocia: Fifteen years' experience in a community hospital. Am J Obstet. Gynecol 1982;144:162-166.

Iff L, Appuzzio J, Ganesh V. Ltr re: A randomized controlled trial of prophylactic maneuvers to reduce head-to-body delivery time in patients at risk for shoulder dystocia. Obstet Gynecol 2003;102:1089-90.

Jackson ST, Hoffer MM, Parrish N. Brachial plexus palsy in the newborn. J Bone and Joint Surg 1988;70:1217- 1220.

Jazayeri A, Heffron JA, Phillips R, et al. Macrosomia prediction using ultrasound fetal abdominal circumference of 35 centimeters or more. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;93:523-526.

Jennett RJ, Tarby TJ, Kreinick CJ. Brachial plexus palsy: An old problem revisited. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992;166:1673-7.

Jennett RJ, Tarby TJ. Brachial plexus palsy: An old problem revisited again. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;176:1354-1357.

Johar R, Rayburn W, Weir D, Eggert L. Birth weights in term infants: A 50 year perspective. J Repro Med 1988;33:813-816.

Johnson J, Longmate J, Frentzen B. Excessive maternal weight and pregnancy outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992;167:353.

Johnson NR. Shoulder dystocia: A study of 47 cases. Aust N.Z.J. Obstet Gynaec 1979;19:28-31.

Kees S, Margalit V, Schiff E, et al. Features of shoulder dystocia in a busy obstetric unit. J Reprod Med. 2001;46:583-588.

Keller JD, Lopez-Zeno JA, Dooley SL, et al. Shoulder dystocia and birth trauma in gestational diabetes; A five-year experience. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991;165:928-930.

Kinch RAH. Shoulder girdle dystocia. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1962;5:1031-1043.

Kitzmiller JL, Mall JC, Gin, FD, Hendirkcs SK, Newman RB, Scheerer L. Measurement of fetal shoulder width with computed tomography in diabetic women. Obstet Gynecol 1987;70:941-945.

Klebanoff MA, Mills JL, Berendes HW. Mothers birth weight as a predictor of macrosomia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985; 153:253-258.

Koenigsberger MR. Brachial plexus palsy at birth: Intrauterine or due to delivery trauma? Annals of Neurology 1980;8:228.

Kolderup LB, Laros, Jr RK, Musci TJ. Incidence of persistent birth injury in macrosomic infants: Association with mode of delivery. Am J Obstet. Gynecol 1997;177:37-41.

Langer O, Berkus MD, Huff RW, Samueloff A. Shoulder dystocia: Should the fetus weighing >/=4000gm be delivered by cesarean section? Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991;165:831-7.

Langhoff-Roos J, Lindmark G, Gebre-Medhin M. Maternal fat stores and fat accretion during pregnancy in relation to infant birthweight. Brit J Obstet Gynecol 1987;94:1170-1177.

Lazer S, Biale Yigal, Mazor Mosme, Lewenthat H, Insler V. Complications associated with the macrosomic fetus. J Repro Med 1986;31:501-505.

Leaphart WL, Meyer MC, Capeless EL. Labor induction with a prenatal diagnosis of fetal macrosomia. J Maternal Fetal Med. 1997;6:99-102.

Lee C. Shoulder Dystocia. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1978;30: 77-82.

Levine A, Lockwood CJ, Brown B, Lapinski R, Berkowitz RL. Sonographic diagnosis of the large for gestational age fetus at term: Does it make a difference? Obstet Gynecol 1992;79:55-8.

Levine MG, Holroyde J, Woods JR, Siddiqu TA, Scott M, Miodovnik M. Birth trauma: Incidence and predisposing factors. Obstet Gynecol 1984;63:792.

Lewis DF, Raymond RC, Perkins MB, Brooks GG, Heymann AR. Reucurrence rate of shoulder dystocia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;172:1369-71.

Lewis DF, Edwards MS, Asrat T, et al. Can shoulder dystocia be predicted? Preconceptual and prenatal factors. J Reprod Med. 1998;43:654-658.

Lipscomb KR, Gregory K, Shaw K. The outcome of macrosomic infants weighing at least 4500 grams: Los Angeles County-University of Southern California experience. Obstet Gynecol. 1995;85:558-564.

Lurie S, Levy R, Ben-Arie A, Hagay Z. Shoulder dystocia: Could it be deduced from the labor partogram? Am J Perinatology, 1995;12:61-62.

Lurie S, Insler V, Hagay Z. Induction of labor at 38-39 weeks of gestation reduces the incidence of shoulder dystocia in gestational diabetic patients class A2. Am J Perinatology 1996;13:293-296.

Mazouni C, Porcu G, Cohen-Solai E, Heckenroth H, Guidicelli B, Bonnier P, Gamerre M. Maternal and anthropomorphic risk factors for shoulder dystocia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(5):567-70

McFarland LV, Raskin M, Daling JR, Benedetti TJ. Erb/Duchenne's palsy: A consequence of fetal macrosomia and method of delivery. Obstet Gynecol 1986;68:784-8.

McFarland M, Hod M, Piper JM, Xenakis EM, Langer Oded. Are labor abnormalities more common in shoulder dystocia? Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;173:1211-14.

McFarland MB, Langer O, Piper JM, Berkus MD. Perinatal outcome and the type and number of maneuvers in shoulder dystocia. Internat J Gynecol Obstet 1996;55:219-224.

McFarland MB, Trylovich CG, Langer O. Anthropometric differences in macrosomic infants of diabetic and nondiabetic mothers. J Maternal Fetal Med. 1998;7:292-295.

Menticoglou, SM. Symphysiotomy for the trapped aftercoming parts of the breech: A review of the literature and a plea for its use. Aust & NZ J of Obstet & Gynecol 1990;30:1-9.

Mintz MC, Landon MB, Gabbe SG, Marinelli DL, Ludmir J, Grumbach K, Arger PH, Colemen BG. Shoulder soft tissue width as a predictor of macrosomia in diabetic pregnancies. Am J Perinatology 1989;6:240-243.

Modanlou HD, Dorchester WL, Thorosia A, Freeman RK. Macrosomia--maternal, fetal, and neonatal implications. Obstet Gynecol 1980;55:420-424.

Modanlou HD, Komatsu G, Dorchester W, Freeman RK, Bosv SK. Large-for-gestational -age neonates: Antropometric reasons for shoulder dystocia. Obstet Gynecol 1982;60:417-23.

Morris WIC. Shoulder dystocia. J. Obstet Gynaecol Br Empire. 1955;62:302-306.

Morrison JC, Sanders JR, Magann EF, Wiser WL. The diagnosis and management of dystocia of the shoulder. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1992;175:515-22.

Nasrat H, Abalkail B, Fageeh W, et al. Anthropometric measurements of newborns of gestational diabetic mothers: Does it indicate disproportional fetal growth? J Maternal Fetal Med. 1997;6:291-295

Nesbitt TS, Gilbert WM, Herrchen B. Shoulder dystocia and associated risk factors with macrosomic infants born in California. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;179:476-480.

Nocon JJ, McKenzie DK, Thomas LJ, Hansell RS. Shoulder dystocia: An analysis of risks and obstetric maneuvers. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;168:1732-1739.

Nocon, James J., Les Weisbrod. "Shoulder Dystocia" Chap 14 of Operative Obstetrics Edited by John Patrick O'Grady and Martin Gimovsky. Williams and Wilkins. 1995:339-353.

O'Leary JA, Leonetti HB. Shoulder dystocia: Prevention and treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990;162:5-9.

O'Leary, James. Shoulder Dystocia and Birth Injury. McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York: 1992.

O'Leary JA, Cuva A. Abdominal rescue after failed cephalic replacement. Obstet Gynecol. 1992;80:514-516.

O'Leary JA. Cephalic replacement for shoulder dystocia: Present status and future role of the Zavanelli maneuver. Obstet Gynecol 1993;82:847-50.

Oppenheim WL, Davis A, Growdon WA, Dorey FJ, Davlin LB. Clavicle fractures in the newborn. Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research, 1990;#250:176-180.

O'Shaughnessy MJ. Hysterotomy facilitation of the vaginal delivery of the posterior arm in a case of shoulder dystocia. Obstet Gynecol. 1998;92:693-695.

Ouzounian JG, Korst LM, Phelan JP. Permanent Erb palsy: A traction-related injury? Obstet Gynecol 1997;89:139-141.

Ouzounian JG, Korst LM, Ahn MO, et al. Shoulder dystocia and neonatal brain injury: Significance of the head-shoulder interval. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;178:S76.

Parks DG, Ziel HK. Macrosomia, a proposed indication for primary cesarean section. Obstet Gynecol. 1978;52:407-412.

Pecorari D. A guest editorial from abroad: Meditations on a nightmare of modern midwifery: Shoulder dystocia. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1999:54:353-354.

Pecorari D. A guest editorial: Erb palsy without apparent shoulder dystocia. Obstet Gynecol Survey 2002;9:547.

Peleg D, Hasnin J, Shalev E. Fractured clavicle and Erb palsy unrelated to birth trauma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;177:1038040.

Phelan JP, Ouzounian JG, Gherman RB, et al. Shoulder dystocia and permanent Erb palsy: the role of fundal pressure. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997;176:S138.

Philpot J, Muntoni F, Skellett S, Dubowitz V. Congenital symmetrical weakness of the upper limbs resembling brachial plexus palsy: A possible sequel of drug toxicity in first trimester of pregnancy? Neuromusc. Disord. 1995;5:67-69.

Ramsey PS, Ramin KD, Field CS. Shoulder dystocia: Rotational maneuvers revisited. J Reprod Med. 2000;45:85-88.

Resnik R, Management of shoulder girdle dystocia. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 1980;23:559-564.

Roberts SW, Hernandez C, Maaberry MC, Adams MD, Leveno KJ, Wendel GD. Obstetric clavicular fracture: The enigma of normal birth. Obstet Gynecol 1995;86:978-81.

Rossavik IK, Joslin GL. Macrosomatia and ultrasonography: What is the problem? Southern Medical Journal 1993;86:1129-1132.

Rouse DJ, Owen J, Goldenberg RL, Cliver SP. The effectiveness and costs of elective cesarean delivery for fetal macrosomia diagnosed by ultrasound. JAMA 1996;276:1480-6.

Rouse DJ, Owen J. Prophylactic cesarean delivery for fetal macrosomia diagnosed by means of ultrasonography: A Faustian bargain? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;81:332-338.

Russell JGB. The rationale of primitive delivery positions. British J of Obstet and Gynaecol 1982;89:712-5.

Sack RA. The large infant: a study of maternal, obstetric, fetal, and newborn characteristics including a long-term pediatric follow-up. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1969; 104: 195-204.

Sacks DA, Chen W. Estimating fetal weight in the management of macrosomia. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2000;55:229-239.

Sanberg EC. The Zavanelli maneuver: 12 years of recorded experience. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;93:312-317.

Sandmire HF, O'Halloin TJ, Shoulder dystocia: Its incidence and associated risk factors. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1988;26:65-73.

Sandmire HF. Whither ultrasonic prediction of fetal macrosomia? Obstet Gynecol. 1993;82:860-862.

Sandmire HF, DeMott RK. The Green Bay cesarean section study: IV. The physician factor as a determinant of cesarean birth rates for the large fetus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;174:1557-1564.

Sandmire HF, DeMott RK. Erb palsy: Concepts of causation. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95:940-942.

Sarno Maj AP, Hinderstein LTC WN, Staiano, Col RA. Fetal macrosomia in a military hospital: Incidence, risk factors , and outcome. Military Medicine 1991;156:55-58.

Schramm M. Impacted shoulders: A personal experience. Aust NZ J Obstet Gyneacol. 1983;23:28-31.

Sherman DJ, Arieli S, Tovbin J, Siegel G, Caspi E, Bukovsky I. A comparison of clinical and ultrasonic estimation of fetal weight. 1998;91:212-217.

Smith RB, Lane C, Pearson JF. Shoulder dystocia: What happens at the next delivery? Br J Obstet Gynecol. 1994;101:713-715.

Skolbekken JA. Shoulder dystocia: malpractice or acceptable risk? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2000;79:750-756.

Sorab J, Allen RH, Gonik B. Tactile sensory monitoring of clinician-applied forces during delivery of newborns. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 1988;35:1090-1093.

Spellacy WN, Miller MS, Winegar A, Peterson PQ. Macrosomia -- maternal characteristics and infant complications. Obstetrics Gynecology. 1985; 66:158-162.

Spong CY, Beall M, Rodrigues D, Ross MG. An objective definition of shoulder dystocia: Prolonged head-to-body delivery intervals and/or the use of ancillary obstetric maneuvers. Obstet Gynecol 1995;86:433-6.

Stallings SP, Edwards RK, Johnson JWC. Correlation of head-to-body delivery intervals in shoulder dystocia and umbilical artery acidosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;185:268-274.

Swartz DP. Shoulder girdle dystocia in vertex delivery: clinical study and review. Obstet Gynecol. 1960;15:194-206.

Tamura RK, Sabbagha RE, Depp R, Dooley SL, Socol ML. Diabetic macrosomia: Accuracy of third trimester ultrasound. Obstet Gynecol 1986;67:828-832.

Turnpenny RD. Fractured clavicle of the newborn in a population with a high prevalence of grand-multiparity: analysis of 78 consecutive cases. British J of Obstet and Gynaecology 1993;100:338-341.

Warsof SL, Gohari P, Berkowitz RL, Hobbins JC. The estimation of fetal weight by computer-assisted analysis. Am J Obstet. Gynecol 1977;128:881-892.

Widness JA, Schwartz HC, Thompson D, Kahn CB, Oh W, Schwartz R. Hemoglobin A1c (glycohaemoglobin) in diabetic pregnancy: An indicator of glucose control and fetal size. British J of Obstet & Gynaecol 1978A;85:812-17.

Widness JA, Schwartz HC, Thompson D, King KC, Kahn CB, Oh W, Schwartz R. Glycohemoglobin (HbA1c): A predictor of birth weight in infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatrics 1978B;92:8-12.

Williams Obstetrics, 21st Edition. F. Gary Cunningham, ed. McGraw-Hill. 2001.

Wladimiroff JW, Bloemsam CA, Wallenburg HCS. Ultrasonic diagnosis of the large-for-dates infant. Obstet Gynecol 1978;52:285-288.

Wood C, Ng KH, Hounslaw D, et al. Time: an important variable in normal delivery. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1973;80:295-300.

Zisow DL. Uterine rupture as a cause of shoulder dystocia. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;87:818-819.

Copyright © 2006 Henry Lerner  

View printer friendly version of Shoulder Dystocia or PDF

Home | Text | Conclusions | Bibliography 
Resources | Shoulder Dystocia Registry | Contact

 

Shoulder Dystocia
Copyright

Designed and developed by FSB Associates
Maintained by Danielle Campisi