Shoulder Dystocia





Shoulder Dystocia Resources

Web Sites | Texts | Key Articles

Web Sites

American Academy of Family Physicians

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

American College of Nurse Midwives

Association of Women's Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses


Family Healthcare Solutions

Injured Newborn

Law and Policy Institutions Guide


Medical Legal Art (animation available)

Nucleus Medical Art (pictures available)

Nursing Spectrum

Seif & Associates Medical Graphics

United Brachial Plexus Network

World Health Organization


Douglas-Stromme Operative Obstetrics, Fifth Edition. Zuspan FP, Quilligan, EJ eds. Appleton & Lange: Norxwalk, CN, 1988. “Shoulder Dystocia,” pps. 338-339.

Maternal-Fetal Medicine. Fifth Edition. Creasy R K, Resnik R, Iams, J. eds. Saunders: Philadelphia, 2004. “Shoulder Dystocia,” pps. 677-678.

Shoulder Dystocia and Birth Injury. O’Leary JA. McGraw-Hill: 1992.

Operative Obstetrics, 2nd Edition. Gilstrap LC, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP. McGraw-Hill: New York, 1995. “Shoulder Dystocia,” pps. 199-221.

Operative Obstetrics. O’Grady JP, Gimovsky ML, McIlhargie CJ. Williams & Wilkins: Baltimore, 1995. “Shoulder Dystocia,”, pps. 339-353.

Williams Obstetrics, 21st Edition. F. Gary Cunningham, ed. McGraw-Hill: New York, 2001. “Shoulder Dystocia,” pps. 459-464.

Key Articles

Acker D., Sachs B., Friedman E. Risk factors for shoulder dystocia. Obstet Gynecol 1985;66:762-768.

Allen R, Sorab J, Gonik B. Risk factors for shoulder dystocia: An engineering study of clinician-applied forces. Obstet Gynecol. 1991;77:352-355.

Allen RH, Bankoski BR, Burtzin CA, et al. Comparing clinician-applied loads for routine , difficult, and shoulder dystocia deliveries. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994;171:1621-1627.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Fetal Macrosomia. Washington DC: ACOG, 2000. Practice Bulletin No. 22.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Shoulder Dystocia. Washington DC: ACOG, 2002. Practice Bulletin No. 40.

Dyachenko A, Ciampi A, Fahey J, Mighty H, Oppenheimer L, Hamilton EF. Prediction of risk for shoulder dystocia with neonatal injury. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2006 Dec;195(6):1544-9. Epub 2006 Jul 17.

Gherman RB, Ouzounia JG, Goodwin TM. Brachial plexus palsy: An in utero injury? AM J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;180:1303-1307.

Gherman RB. Shoulder dystocia: An evidence-based evaluation of the obstetrical nightmare. Clinical Obstet and Gynecol 2002;45:345-361.

Gonen R, Spiegel D, Abend M. Is macrosomia predictable, and are shoulder dystocia and birth trauma preventable? Obstet Gynecol. 1996;88:526-529.

Gonen O, Rosen DJ, Dolfin Z, et al. Induction of labor versus expectant management in macrosomia: A randomized study. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;89:913-917.

Gonen R, Bader D, Ajami M. Effects of a policy of elective cesarean delivery in cases of suspected fetal macrosomia on the incidence of brachial plexus injury and the rate of cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183:1296-1300.

Gonik B, Walker A, Grimm M. Mathematic modeling of forces associated with shoulder dystocia: A comparison of endogenous and exogenous sources. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;182;689-691.

Koenigsberger MR. Brachial plexus palsy at birth: Intrauterine or due to delivery trauma? Annals of Neurology 1980;8:228.

Ouzounian JG, Korst LM, Phelan JP. Permanent Erb palsy: A traction-related injury? Obstet Gynecol 1997;89:139-141.

Rouse DJ, Owen J, Goldenberg RL, Cliver SP. The effectiveness and costs of elective cesarean delivery for fetal macrosomia diagnosed by ultrasound. JAMA 1996;276:1480-6.

Sandmire HF, DeMott RK. Erb palsy: Concepts of causation. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95:940-942.

Copyright © 2006 Henry Lerner

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